Ryan’s Near Death Experience

Ryan gets in a life threatening motor vehicle accident, gets to visit heaven and meets Jesus.

Different Stages of a Traumatic Brain Injury

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) survivors not solely undergo physical changes however additionally mental and emotional changes throughout their recovery. though everyone’s recovery is completely different, most survivors can transition through 5 emotional stages together with however not restricted to:

Confusion,
Denial,
Anger & Depression,
Testing part,
and Uneasy Acceptance.
Confusion
Confusion and agitation is that the first stage several survivors can expertise and this part sometimes happens right once the first trauma. throughout this part, survivors expertise confusion concerning standard of living also because the conditions of their injury. A person’s ability to listen and learn stops, protective energy for the brain to start to heal- usually times inflicting confusion and frustration. This stage will last for the primary few days, weeks or months once impact.

Denial
After confusion subsides, denial takes its place. Some survivors expertise one or each styles of denial counting on the initial accident and severity of the injury. Emotional denial happens once the individual is afraid or upset and doesn’t wish to cope with the recovery or results of the initial injury. the opposite style of denial is caused by chemical changes within the brain. The brain can generally refuse to method sure info. Typically, TBI patients believe “there’s nothing wrong with Maine,” creating recovery troublesome for each the survivor and their families. It’s necessary to notice that once somebody is in denial, they like being given consistent feedback on their injury, condition and WHO they need become.

Anger & Depression
Eventually, denial can subside and a possibility down into additional recovery will begin. as a result of several survivors have restricted awareness concerning what’s occurring around them and reciprocally what’s going on in their own recovery, several become frustrated/angry and depressed. several survivors expertise each. It’s necessary to stay in mind that this can be utterly traditional. elements of the brain that management emotions are harmed. once realizing you’ve got become “different” or are troubled to require half in stuff you once enjoyed, it will be troublesome to understand. additionally, several survivors are attempting to stay up with the constant changes they’re experiencing. this can be an important step in recovery and is often times not a one-time part. again and again survivors can return and forth throughout their recovery.

Testing part
After experiencing enhancements and new attributes, several survivors can expertise a “testing part.” Understanding they’re extremely near the person they were before their injury, survivors are excited to start out “testing” their talents. In most head injuries, survivors can develop fatigue disorders experiencing weariness simply. However, throughout the testing part, everything is thrown out the window and something is victim. usually times, patients can push on the far side their limits to sway others that they need “recovered.” truly, most patients can exaggerate it and transcend their talents, payment many days paying for it. this will be a awfully painful and troublesome stage to understand for each survivors and relations.

Uneasy Acceptance
When patients begin to be told their limits, they expertise uneasy acceptance. Survivors have learned through failures, therapy, and fatigue that they’ll solely handle a restricted variety of hours of labor, faculty or social activities. They’ve learned the importance of keeping a standardized schedule and notice that it becomes useful to stay thereto schedule. usually times survivors during this part begin to use words like “the recent Maine” and “the new me.” several of their recent friends are not any longer with them however they’ve found new friends. They’ve moved on to new relationships, new faculties or even even new work. after they do, they start to simply accept the challenge of acceptance and healing.

Healing is not any straightforward task for TBI survivors or their families. It will be a awfully discouraging challenge every now and then however given correct treatment and time, many of us can see enhancements. one in every of the foremost troublesome things to handle is that several TBI survivors won’t have scars or physical issues however can suffer from the emotional recovery of the brain. usually time’s those who appear fine to the surface world have bigger emotional issues. These emotional phases might not replicate everyone’s experiences however have a strong correlation between TBI survivors and head injury recovery.

Mood Swings with Traumatic Brain Injury TBI

After a patient suffers a head injury or a Traumatic Brain Injury from a car accident or some other kind of trauma, they may experience rapid changes in the person’s behavior, known commonly as mood swings. Many patients experience these emotions in intense, short instances, often only lasting for a short period of time. Other patients may also experience mood swings, however, the emotional change stays with them for longer amounts of time. Most of the time, this is described by people who have a TBI as being “an emotional roller coaster,” as they switch between feelings of sad thoughts, happy thoughts, and than anger, all within just a short period of time. Mood swings are common to people after incurring a TBI as head injuries often damage the part of the brain that is primarily responsible for controlling and governing the different emotions and behavior. If this area is altered or damaged due to an injury to the brain, it is easy to see how it may affect a person’s mood. People with traumatic brain injuries often have unpredictable behavior. For example, someone with a TBI may experience random periods of crying or laughing without the relating emotions if the areas of the brain that control these responses are damaged. Patients who experience mood swings after a severe head injury can often expect the symptoms to recede over time. As the brain heals, the affected areas of the brain will return to normal. If the problem remains the same, doctors can prescribe mood stabilizers and other psychotropic medications to help.


Important Facts about a Traumatic Brain Injury

-Most people, after suffering a TBI do make a good recovery.

-Using a seatbelt and wearing a helmet is one of the best ways to help prevent a TBI from occurring.

-One of the most commonly injured areas of the brain is the Frontal lobe, which controls thinking and emotion regulation.

-Males are twice as likely to incur a TBI than females are, according to statistics.

This post’s intention was not to present unfortunate facts about TBIs, below are some of the best ways to further your healing from a TBI.

-There Are Groups with Resources to Help TBI Survivors and Caregivers.

Practice going to occupational, speech, and physical therapy regularly. This helps improve how your mind functions. Since it has been proven that the brain has Nuroplasticity, therapy only helps accelerate your healing.

Beware of overstimulation. Overstimulation to the brain and or body could leave a detrimental effect to you. It is important to someone who has a TBI to regulate their energy as best as they can. A sufficient amount of sleep is paramount in one’s recovery.


All About Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Ways of Healing, Methods

Traumatic Brain Injury – What You Must Know

Traumatic Brain Injury is a serious medical condition that can extremely affect the life of a human being. It is also known as a traumatic head injury, closed head injury or head injury. It can be a confusing injury since it often produces a variety of symptoms that vary greatly from person to person. Symptoms can also vary in adults and children. The best way to learn about this injury is to look at the different symptoms for each type of traumatic head injury.

Causes of Brain Injury

An injury to the brain can be caused by any type of blow to the head. In many cases, it is obvious when a brain injury has occurred. A car accident, for example, may cause a traumatic head injury that is very apparent. However, some injuries are not as apparent. Someone who falls and then gets back up may not even realize they have injured their brain. It is not until later when symptoms present that a person realizes something is wrong.

When a person suffers from a traumatic injury to the head there may be visible swelling or bruising. In some cases, this swelling and bruising may only be inside the skull. When the brain starts to swell it presses against the skull and cause serious effects, even death.

Types of Traumatic Brain Injury and Symptoms

A mild traumatic head injury is one type of brain injury. The symptoms of this type of injury include unconsciousness, amnesia where the person forgets the events that led up to the injury and those following the injury, headache, confusion, dizziness, blurred vision and mood changes.

Moderate to severe traumatic brain injuries can produce persistent headaches, vomiting, seizures, and problems waking up from sleep, dilated pupils, and problems with speech, weakness in the body, and problems with coordination, confusion, and changes in temperament.

Mild, moderate and severe traumatic injuries to the head are the type of brain injuries specific to adults. These injuries in children are much different. Children may not be able to tell you how they feel and they may not have the skills developed yet to recognize when something is wrong.

Symptoms of an injury to the head in children include problems eating, cranky moods, problems sleeping, problems in school and loss of interest in favorite activities.

Seeking Treatment

After an injury to the head or the surrounding area or other traumatic injury or fall, a person should be checked out by medical personnel. Any situation where the body is bumped roughly or otherwise injured could lead to a brain injury. The brain can easily bump against the skull and swelling can begin. It is better to be safe with any type of head injury and seek medical treatment as soon as possible. In most cases, the doctor will simply observe the patient for a short period of time to see if symptoms of an injury to the head are present.

An injury to the head should always be taken seriously. The brain is a complex organ that can easily be injured. It is important to always seek medical care if a traumatic head injury is suspected so that treatment can take place and further problems can be avoided.

Stay Away from Ordinary Drugs! Take the Natural Route!

Ordinary drugs have shown limited benefits for brain (serious physical or emotional harm) since they don’t address the main cause of what is driving (hard hit to the head that knocks you out) signs of sickness. Now, no neuro-(serving or acting to prevent harm) treatment options exist that improve signs of sickness after a TBI.[5] Now many (people who work to find information) are starting to study a wide range of natural compounds and vitamins that have promising broad-spectrum, (related to protecting nerves from harm), and anti-swelling activity. Curcumin, green tea, extremely important fatty acids, resveratrol, and vitamin E are some of the compounds with potential medically helpful benefit in the treatment of TBI.[3] The (event(s) or object(s) that prove something) for these substances is still very early (and subject to change) and there is much more research needed to confirm these effects in humans, but they offer possible options in a condition with no known treatment.

CURCUMIN – is an active compound found in the spice turmeric. It has attracted much interest as a possible treatment for many long-lasting sicknesses, including Brain disease (AD), cancer, and heart disease due to its powerful anti-swelling and body-protecting chemical properties.[6] While results are still early (and subject to change), curcumin extracts are showing positive benefit in neuro-recovery, cell membrane (making steady/making firm and strong), and reduction of oxidative stress in animals.[8,9,19,11] Other potential medically helpful effects include increasing brain growth factors, chelating heavy metals, reducing cholesterol, and protecting mitochondria.[3]

The problem with curcumin is that it doesn’t (mix with and become part of a liquid) well in water, making its (mental concentration/picking up of a liquid) through the (tube from the mouth to the anus) limited. It is important to point out that only free curcumin (not other curcumin molecules) can pass the blood brain (something that blocks or stops something). Newer, fat (able to be dissolved in something) creations, such as a curcumin extract called Longvida, appear to improve delivery into the bloodstream, past the blood brain (something that blocks or stops something) and into brain tissue.[12,13] Longvida curcumin was developed for nerve-based sicknesses/problems by (people who work to find information) at UCLA. Curcumin stands as one of the most promising (related to protecting nerves from harm) and medically helpful agents in TBI and PCS due its excellent safety profile and wide ranging (machine/method/way) of action.

(Editor’s note: Also, other brands of curcumin have been created for improved bioavailability, including NutriCure by NAKA. Or,/In a different way, (ancient medicine) doctors recommend cooking turmeric in oil, and combining it with black pepper, to improve bioavailability of its voters/parts.)

GREEN TEA – like curcumin, is a well-known and widely used/ate/drank/destroyed herb with broad-spectrum body-protecting chemical activity. Its (related to protecting nerves from harm) properties can be attributed mostly to the power body-protecting chemical molecule called epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the amino acid L- theanine, and to a lesser degree (drug that gives you energy).[14] EGCG has been shown to have body-protecting chemical and anti-swelling effects in animal models of brain injury.[15,16,17] One (like nothing else in the world) aspect of green tea is that the L-theanine content may offer protection from excitotoxic injury that happens immediately after a (hard hit to the head that knocks you out).[17] There is a clear need for more research, but promising (event(s) or object(s) that prove something) hints that even regular dietary consumption of green tea may have a (related to protecting nerves from harm) effect if a (hard hit to the head that knocks you out) happens. Some other plant compounds such as resveratrol (found in red wine) and anthocyanidins (found in berries) have also shown (related to protecting nerves from harm) effects.[3] Unlike (related to medical drugs) medicines, these plant extracts have many modes of action and work cooperatingally with each other. They also support the function of the body’s own body-protecting chemical systems and nerve repair systems.[18] There have been some animal trials using plant compounds such as resveratrol, (showing or proving) an anti-swelling and (related to protecting nerves from harm) effect in TBI, but like green tea, there have been no human trials to date.[19,20] Since these molecules are found in many colourful fruits and vegetables, it would be a safe recommendation for people with TBI or PCS to include/combine them into their diets.

OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS – have long been thought about/believed extremely important for brain development and function. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and to a lesser degree Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), is mostly found in nerve membranes; they influence cell signaling and anti-swelling pathways.[21] Since the human body cannot (in a way that produces a lot with very little waste) convert plant-based extremely important fatty acids to EPA and DHA, fish oil adds to/helpful additions are the best source of the active parts/pieces. (It is important to note that, while using/eating/drinking fish high in omega 3 fatty acids is desirable, the heavy metals and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) found in most fish is a concern, especially for brain function.)[22] Some trials in animal models of TBI have found that DHA and omega-3 addition (to something else) improves thinking-related function, reduces nerve swelling, (makes steady/makes firm and strong) cellular energy production, and increases nerve repair.[23,24] One of these studies showed that pre-injury (something extra you eat or drink) with fish oil also had a (related to protecting nerves from harm) effect.

VITAMIN E – is a commonly studied natural compound for brain health since it has a powerful body-protecting chemical effect, specifically in fatty tissue (i.e. nerves). Some animal studies have found that vitamin E addition (to something else) reduces nerve damage and improves thinking-related performance following repeating, concussive brain injury.[25,26] Interestingly, addition (to something else) before the (hard hits to the head that knock people out) also had a (related to protecting nerves from harm) effect.[26] A good creation should provide all eight molecules of vitamin E, with the highest proportion being the strong gamma-tocopherol, which is carefully thought about/believed the most anti-swelling part. Also, vitamin E works with other body-healing chemicals, such as vitamin C and coenzyme Q10 as part of a body-protecting chemical network. This highlights the need to consume body-healing chemicals together in order to support their proper (related to the body function of living things) function.

CREATINE, L-CARNITINE, ALA AND MORE – There are some other newly-visible (vitamins, minerals, protein, etc.) now being studied for TBI. Creatine, an amino acid found in muscles, has human (event(s) or object(s) that prove something) supporting its benefit in reducing signs of sickness after a (hard hit to the head that knocks you out). Benefits were found for addition (to something else) before and even after the injury, (event(s) or object(s) that prove something) that creatine can be used to prevent and treat nerve-based shortages after a (hard hit to the head that knocks you out). There are other promising adds to/helpful additions being studied, including acetyl L-carnitine, alpha lipoic acid, B12, ginkgo biloba, and magnesium.[27]

HYPERBARIC OXYGEN THERAPY – Another (action that helps a bad situation) suggested to have helpful effects on TBI recovery is hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), although more research is needed to confirm its benefit.

How to Prevent Neurons from Dying after Brain Injury

Electrical stimulation of the brain by applying current to the eye may help retinal nerve cells to survive injury. While these neurons may not be restored to full function, they are prevented from dying. But to achieve survival, their interconnections, the dendritic tree, needs to disconnect rapidly for the protective action to unfold. In a study published in Scientific Reports, researchers from Magdeburg University (Germany) and The Chinese University of Hong Kong report that for rats and mice, repetitive transorbital alternating current stimulation (rtACS) may help preserve visual neurons from cell death after injury.

Because the tissue at the back of the eye, the retina, is part of the brain, researchers can directly observe how brain cells react in the living animal. The researchers repeatedly monitored neurons in both rat and mouse retinas after an optic nerve injury and measured neuronal death after this lesion. Surprisingly, a neuroprotective treatment with electrical alternating current stimulation increased cellular survival in the eye´s retina, but it also induced a fast and complete stripping-off of the neuron’s dendritic tree. The dendrites are like a tree receiving many thousands of signals from other neurons. This enables them to process visual information and then transmit the signals along the optic nerve towards the brain. By retracting its dendrites, the cell withdraws itself from this intercellular communication network and becomes silent — which helps its survival.

The test animals were divided into groups and subjected to both real and sham treatments. For the rats, optic nerve crush (ONC) was used to induce an injury in some of the animals to mimic glaucoma. Some animals and not others (sham) were treated with rtACS, resulting in three test groups: ONC/rtACS, ONC/Sham, and Sham/Sham. Using in vivo confocal neuroimaging (ICON) and measurements of Visual Evoked Potentials (VEP), the researchers could determine whether a neuron had survived and whether it was still functioning. The ONC and the first rtACS stimulation were done on day zero. ICON was performed on day 4, followed by rtACS or sham stimulation. On day 7 post ONC another ICON was performed.

For the mice, a confocal laser ophthalmoscope was used to image the dendritic structures of the retina for three groups of subjects, ONC/rtACS, ONC/Sham and Sham/rtACS. The mice received rtACS on days 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 after ONC and images were taken on days 3, 7 and 14.

According to lead author Petra Henrich-Noack, PhD, Institute of Medical Psychology, Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany, “With our experiments, we have detected so far unknown ‘silent survivor cells’ in the brain and it will be exciting to find out whether they later die or can be reactivated.” Surprisingly, neurons in the retina of animals that survived better when treated with rtACS lost their dendritic tree completely within the first 3 days after the lesion. The authors suggest that this early structural isolation might protect the neurons from the “toxic” excitation that is known to appear soon after brain damage.

 

 

Story Source:

Materials provided by Institute for Medical Psychology, Otto-v.-Guericke University Magdeburg. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Journal Reference:

Petra Henrich-Noack, Elena G. Sergeeva, Torben Eber, Qing You, Nadine Voigt, Jürgen Köhler, Sebastian Wagner, Stefanie Lazik, Christian Mawrin, Guihua Xu, Sayantan Biswas, Bernhard A. Sabel, Christopher Kai-Shun Leung. Electrical brain stimulation induces dendritic stripping but improves survival of silent neurons after optic nerve damage. Scientific Reports, 2017; 7 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-00487-z


 

 

How a Brain Injury Tells The Body it is Hurt

 

Brain Injury – Johns Hopkins researchers say they have identified a new way that cells in the brain alert the rest of the body to recruit immune cells when the brain is injured. The work was completed in mouse models that mimic infection, stroke or trauma in humans.

 

Investigators already knew there was a communication highway between the brain and the immune system but have been unclear about how exactly how the brain sends signals to the immune system. While immune system cells’ purpose is to defend and protect the body, ironically the brain’s “call to arms” may cause more harm than good when it instructs immune cells to enter into the brain. The persistence of these cells can cause chronic inflammation and damage the brain.

In their new study, described in Science Signaling April 13, Johns Hopkins researchers say there is evidence that vesicles or small (about the size of a virus), fat-like molecules and protein-filled sacks released from a type of immune cell in the brain called astrocytes travel through the bloodstream to the liver. The liver then instructs white blood cells to go to the site of injury in the brain.

“This work describes an entirely new way that the brain talks with the body,” says Norman Haughey, Ph.D., professor of neurology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. “Identifying this pathway has helped us pinpoint ways to impede this process and reduce brain damage brought on by the body’s own excessive immune response.”

Because of the work of several other collaborators, Haughey says, his team knew that some sort of inflammation-promoting molecule was released from brain and targeted to the liver after brain injury to send immune system cells to the damaged area, but the identity of this go-between had been elusive for years.

The questions remained of what the signal was, and how, exactly, the signal got all the way to the liver from the brain, particularly since the blood-brain barrier prevents many molecules in the brain from crossing over into the rest of the body, just as it prevents molecules from getting into the brain. The team focused on an enzyme called neutral sphingomyelinase, known as nSMase2, which they knew from a separate project was turned on by an immune system chemical messenger, a cytokine interleukin 1-beta (IL-1b) that promotes inflammation. Sphingomyelinases like nSMase2 play a normal role in the cell’s metabolism by breaking down fatty molecules into smaller components that cells use for every day functions.

To see if possibly nSMase2 was also involved in alerting the immune system during brain injury, the researchers mimicked brain injury in mice by injecting cytokine IL-1b into the striatum, a structure found in the deep center of the brain. As a comparison group, they injected saline (saltwater) in the same brain area of other mice. They also injected the mouse brains with both the cytokine IL-1b and a drug called altenusin that blocks the nSMase enzyme from working.

Twenty-four hours after the injection, the researchers saw large numbers of immune system white blood cells in tissue samples of the rodent brains near the site of injury of those mice injected with the cytokine IL-1b, but not in the brain tissue of the control group of mice. In addition, they no longer saw the same large influx of white blood cells into the brain when they used the drug that inhibited nSMase, with the number of white blood cells in the brain dropping by about 90 percent. This finding told the researchers of nSMase2’s involvement but still didn’t tell them about the signal sent from the brain to activate the body’s immune response. According to Haughey, after many failed experiments to determine the brain’s messenger, he visited his colleague and collaborator Daniel Anthony at Oxford University, who introduced him to the concept of “exosomes” — miniature vesicles released from cells.

“That conversation was the ‘Ah-ha’ moment when it all began to make sense,” says Haughey.

He read earlier studies showing that the enzyme nSMase2 was required for forming and releasing exosomes. Exosomes form inside cell compartments and release outside the cell when these compartments fuse with the cell’s surrounding membrane. Exosomes are surrounded by bits of cell membrane and filled with proteins and different types of the genetic material RNA.

To test that exosomes were the source of this brain to body communication, Haughey’s research team isolated exosomes from the blood of mice four hours after injecting the cytokine IL-1b into brain and then injected the exosomes into the tail veins of different mice that had the cytokine and the nSMase-blocking drug altenusin already in their brains.

The researchers found that white blood cells in healthy mice who received exosomes from the blood of the mice with brain damage traveled to the site of brain injury, which the researchers say demonstrates that exosomes released from brain in response to damage alert the immune system to send the immune cell sentinels to the brain.

When they stripped the vesicles of protein and their genetic cargo and injected them back into mice, the blood cells no longer went to the site of brain injury.

Finally, the researchers analyzed the protein and genetic material contents of the exosomes in an effort to identify the molecules inside that alerted the immune system to brain damage. They found 10 unique proteins and 23 microRNAs — short bits of RNA that don’t code for genes — at increased levels in the vesicles. Several of these components had connections to a specific mechanism used by the liver to activate inflammation.

“Given the therapeutic potential of the nSMase target, we’re now working closely with Drs. Barbara Slusher, Camilo Rojas, Ajit Thomas and colleagues at the Johns Hopkins Drug Discovery facility to identify potent inhibitors of the nSMase enzyme which can be developed for clinical use,” says Haughey.


 

Story Source:

Materials provided by Johns Hopkins Medicine. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


 

Journal Reference:

Alex M. Dickens, Luis B. Tovar-y-Romo, Seung-Wan Yoo, Amanda L. Trout, Mihyun Bae, Marlene Kanmogne, Bezawit Megra, Dionna W. Williams, Kennith W. Witwer, Mar Gacias, Nino Tabatadze, Robert N. Cole, Patrizia Casaccia, Joan W. Berman, Daniel C. Anthony, Norman J. Haughey. Astrocyte-shed extracellular vesicles regulate the peripheral leukocyte response to inflammatory brain lesions. Science Signaling, 2017; 10 (473): eaai7696 DOI:10.1126/scisignal.aai7696

 

Citation:

Johns Hopkins Medicine. “How the injured brain tells the body it’s hurt.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 18 May 2017. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/05/170518104041.htm>.